This blog covers some of the things that I have learned about the power that is found in the 8-Process Scores when combining the scores in meaningful ways. It involves using a calculator (in brain or electronic) and adding up pairs of scores. We have presented to us the attitudes of E and I (all the extraverted functions and all the introverted functions), the perceptive functions of S and N and the judging functions of T and F. These are the pairs that will be presented. Will start with the attitude pair of Extraversion and Introversion.
To begin the process, add up all four of the Extraverted functions (Se, Ne, Te & Fe). Then in the same way add up all four of the Introverted functions. Do the same for all four of the perceptive functions and all four of the judging functions (will get to them in a bit). Here is where things get interesting. For the E and I result on average the Ep (sum of extraverted scores) are around 5 or 6 points greater than the Ip (sum of the introverted scores). This is response style revealing itself in large group data. Extraverted individuals will tend to respond more “vary like” than we find with introverted preferring folk. With this in mind, what can we expect to find when an individual’s Ep is more than 25 points above Ip? Or Ip is more than 25 points above Ep? I have found that the greater the difference the more likely there is to be an “attitude distortion.” Jung speaks about this in the introduction and chapter 10 of Psychological Types. He uses the individual’s distorted relationship with objects to explain what I refer to as an “Object Malfunction; OM.” Objects in our life can be a person, place, activity, or other things.
The extrovert will tend to interact with the object by going to it. The extreme or OM occurs (Ep>Ip by 25) when they give themselves to the object to the point that they cease to exist as an individual and become the object. They are absorbed by the object. Family or friends will say that they have abandoned the relationship with them for the object. They have a lot of problems with unhappy people in their lives, but state that they are doing something important, a greater good, or a calling. Often, they will say that they do not know “what is the matter with everybody, don’t they understand that I have to do this?”
For an introvert, they will tend to interact with objects by taking them into their thoughts (the objects become subjective). Never giving themselves to the object, but their subjective beliefs regarding the object are their reality. The introverted form of OM (Ip>Ep by 25) manifests itself when the introvert believes they know the object and the truth about the object. This is proclaimed even in the face of disconfirming evidence (when they are wrong!). They are often very argumentative regarding the object and often refuse to look at other viewpoints. Friends and family will say that they can’t talk with them because they refuse to listen.
The 25-point difference between attitudes is just an approximation, not an exact designation. As with all scores on psychological measures they should be used as a starting point for asking questions. The professional can check the OM occurrence by simply asking the Extravert “have you had the experience of others believing that you have deserted them for something or activity?” For the Introversion preferring individual “have you had the experience of other believing that you are inflexible about things and refuse to listen or you’re argumentative?” They will tell you all about it. The extrovert will tell you how they feel drawn or pulled to the object and dive in with abandon. The introvert will tell you how they have thought it through and KNOW the truth.
We can assist them by listening and helping them to see their OM. For the extroverted preferring individual, you may say “you must feel pulled into the object and lose yourself?” For the introvert person “you have thought it over and know you’re correct, but why can’t others see that?” These are just suggestions to start your thinking about interventions. I have worked with many of both types of OM, and they are open to finding a path that causes f problems in life. All of us are at risk for these distortions if we become too drained. But for some, it is an all too common happening in life. Much more can be said about OM but on to the process distortions (PD).
Unlike the attitudes, which have a response style difference Ep 5 or 6 points greater than Ip, there is no difference between the perceiving and judging (Pp and Jp respectively). As with the attitude scores simply add up the 4 perceptual scores and the 4 judgment scores. When the difference between Pp and Jp is greater than 15 then the professional can begin to play detective. We need to recall that to perceive is the taking in of information and then judging or deciding about it (that which is perceived). The information may be from the past, present, or future perception. Decisions are based on what has been, is now being, or will be perceived.
We will say that your client has a 20-point difference Pp > Jp for this scenario. What does this look like? Perception of events (external or internal) with inadequate or poor judgments about them. Seeing things and making wrong decisions about the information. Often not being skilled in understanding what something means. Friends and family may say “I don’t know where they come up with that?” Good at perceiving and poor in judgments. Wrong decisions about what they observe have caused them trouble.
The opposite is a 20-point difference Jp > Pp. What does that look like? Judgments about what is poorly or not perceived. Not taking in the information correctly or inadequately and yet being confident to decide about it. Often the decision will be in error or seem half-baked. Others may state that “I don’t agree with you!” or “that’s not right They are often seen as quick to judge or harsh. They will wonder, “how do you see that?”
These distortions of process (mental) functions develop over time and once they are exposed and discussed the change is often embraced. Taking time in-between perceiving and making judgments can be taught as well as the act of taking a second look or thinking about the information longer before making a decision/judgment about it. Sometimes it helps to look for an origin of the issue, but often pointing in the correct direction is what they want and need.
When collaborating with professionals it is common to find the presence of one of the OM or PD at work in their lives. Things may be going well, but there is something that occurs often enough to make it an issue worth bringing up to the coach or counselor. This intervention can make life more enjoyable for your client, those in the work environment, and home life. Remember, often simply recognizing the issue is the start of correcting the behavior. For individuals that have a persistent pattern of distortions, these are not part of normal operations with attitude or functions. They are learned distortions that have developed over time. If in the process of administering one of the Majors Type assessments, you observe one of these patterns explore it with your client. It can be extremely helpful.
This is an introduction to an advanced application of the 8-process scores. Read Jung’s Psychological Types introduction and chapter 10 for a discussion in detail. This discussion could have been a booklet in and of itself. Maybe someday. I look forward to hearing about your experiences and answering your questions regarding this discussion.